Yellow fever – Brazil
The city of Blumenau, Brazil, reported its first case of Yellow fever in 2021. The Patient is a 39-year-old male who is receiving treatment and is still in the intensive care unit.
Santa Catarina has registered six other confirmed cases and two deaths associated with Yellow fever, in 2021.
Yellow fever is an acute febrile infectious disease. The main symptoms of the disease are abrupt onset of fever, chills, severe headache, back and body pain, nausea and vomiting, weakness and tiredness, abdominal pain, and jaundice (yellowish skin).
In a wild environment, it spread through mosquito bites of the genera Haemagogus and Sabethes transmit the virus. In the urban cycle, the virus is transmitted to man by the Aedes aegypti mosquito.
According to the Directorate of Epidemiological Surveillance of Santa Catarina, the patients were not vaccinated, and vaccination is the only best way to prevent the disease.
Photo: Electron micro-graph of Yellow Fever Virus.
Yellow fever is a viral disease, of typically short duration, caused by the bite of an infected female mosquito. Only humans and primates can catch the disease. In most cases infection will be accompanied by fever, chills and loss of appetite. Muscle pains and headaches are also typical symptoms that improve within 5 days.
In about 15% of people, within a day of improving the fever comes back, abdominal pain occurs, and liver damage begins causing yellow skin. Death occurs in up to half of those who get severe disease.
A safe and effective vaccine against yellow fever exists, and some countries require vaccinations for travelers.
The disease originated in Africa and spread to South America in the 17th century with the Spanish and Portuguese importation of enslaved Africans from sub-Saharan Africa. Since the 17th century, several major outbreaks of the disease have occurred in the Americas, Africa, and Europe. In the 18th and 19th centuries, yellow fever was considered one of the most dangerous infectious diseases.
In 1927, yellow fever virus was the first human virus to be isolated.
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