Yellow fever – Brazil

The Directorate of Epidemiological Surveillance (Dive) confirmed on Thursday (8th April 2021) the fifth human case of yellow fever in Santa Catarina province of Brazil in 2021 with one death.

Dive is still waiting for the results of the laboratory examination of another suspicious case, notified by the municipality of Lages, in the Serra. The city, which registered the death of 82 monkeys due to the disease, will have a D-day of immunization against yellow fever on Saturday (10th April 2021).

Yellow fever is an acute febrile infectious disease. In the wild, mosquitoes of the genera Haemagogus and Sabethes transmit the virus. In the urban cycle, the virus is transmitted to man by the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Monkeys, who live in the same wild environment as mosquitoes, are the first victims of the disease.

The main symptoms of the disease are: abrupt onset of fever, chills, severe headache, back and body pain, nausea and vomiting, weakness and tiredness, abdominal pain and jaundice.

Yellow fewer is preventable by vaccine and treatment can help, however this condition can’t be cured.
Yellow fever is a viral disease, of typically short duration, caused by the bite of an infected female mosquito. Only humans and primates can catch the disease. In most cases infection will be accompanied by fever, chills and loss of appetite. Muscle pains and headaches are also typical symptoms that improve within 5 days.

In about 15% of people, within a day of improving the fever comes back, abdominal pain occurs, and liver damage begins causing yellow skin. Death occurs in up to half of those who get severe disease.

A safe and effective vaccine against yellow fever exists, and some countries require vaccinations for travelers.

The disease originated in Africa and spread to South America in the 17th century with the Spanish and Portuguese importation of enslaved Africans from sub-Saharan Africa. Since the 17th century, several major outbreaks of the disease have occurred in the Americas, Africa, and Europe. In the 18th and 19th centuries, yellow fever was considered one of the most dangerous infectious diseases.

In 1927, yellow fever virus was the first human virus to be isolated.

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