Leptospirosis – Bolivia
18 cases, including one fatality, of leptospirosis have been reported in the Bolivian City of Tarija.
Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease that infects humans after they had contact with contaminated animal urine. Normally the disease stays asymptomatic but can be fatal. Symptoms include fever, muscle pain and a yellow coloration on the skin or eyes.
Of 18 cases, only 2 were symptomatics and one fatality was reported.
The government prepares to capture and kill rodents in the outbreak area
Photo: Electron micrograph of leptospira bacteria.
Leptospirosis is a bacterial disease that affects humans and animals. In humans, it can cause a wide range of symptoms, some of which may be mistaken for other diseases. Some infected persons, however, may have no symptoms at all.
Signs and symptoms can range from none to mild (headaches, muscle pains, and fevers) to severe (bleeding in the lungs or meningitis).
The bacteria are spread to humans through animal urine, or water and soil contaminated with animal urine, coming into contact with the eyes, mouth, nose or breaks in the skin.
Without treatment, Leptospirosis can lead to kidney damage, meningitis (inflammation of the membrane around the brain and spinal cord), liver failure, respiratory distress, and even death.
The disease was historically known as "rice field jaundice" in ancient Chinese texts, "autumn fever", "seven-day fever", and "nanukayami fever" in Japan. The bacterium causing the disease was identified in 1908 in Japan.
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