Botulism – United States
2 cases of wound botulism involving a 26 year old woman and a 40 year old man from New Mexico. It is possibly caused by the use of injection drugs.
Botulism is a paralytic illness caused by the nerve toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum that appears in a wound. It can produce toxins and cause muscle paralysis. Some other symptoms include double vision, blurred vision, drooping eyelids, slurred speech, difficulty swallowing, dry mouth, muscle weakness, and difficulty breathing or shortness of breath.
The New Mexico Department of Health is recommending clinicians to be alert for botulism cases and immediately report to the Department of Health so an antitoxin can be provided.
Photo: Clostridium botulinum.
Foodborne botulism is a severe intoxication caused by eating the preformed toxin present in contaminated food. It occurs when spores of bacterium Clostridium botulinum germinate and the organism is allowed to grow and produce toxin in food that is later eaten without sufficient heating or cooking to inactivate the spores. Botulinum toxin is one of the most potent neurotoxins known.
Typically in a few hours to several days after ingestion of the contaminated food, one will start to show the classic symptoms: blurred vision, dry mouth, and difficulty in swallowing. Gastrointestinal symptoms may or may not occur. If untreated, the paralysis can descend through the body starting at the face and working its way down.
Prevention is primarily by proper food preparation. The toxin, though not the organism, is destroyed by heating it to more than 85 C (185 F) for longer than 5 minutes. Honey can contain the organism, and for this reason, honey should not be fed to children under 12 months.
Globally, botulism is fairly rare, with approximately 1,000 cases yearly.
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